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Don Baer

Don Baer

Don Baer is one of the “fathers of generalization.”  In 1999, he wrote: “Learning one aspect of anything never means that you know the rest of it.  Doing something skillfully now never means that you will always do it well.  Resisting one temptation consistently never means that you now have character, strength, and discipline.  Thus, it is not the learner […]

Instructional Design that Promotes Generalization

Instructional Design that Promotes Generalization

Multiple exemplar training: A teaching style, for the benefit of generalization, uses a variety of stimulus and response outcomes.  For example, teaching a child to say, “hello” and / or wave to the stimulus of both to someone waving hello and saying, “howdy.” General Case Analysis: Is a systematic way of teaching examples that represent a full range of both […]

Contingencies

Contingencies

A contingency can be either a reinforcement or punishment that occurs after a behavior has been expressed by an individual or group.  A naturally existing contingency, in layman’s terms, “natural consequence” happens without the manipulation of the behavioral analysts.  Such an example would be, hitting the snooze button makes you late for work which causes you to leave your house […]

Generalization

Generalization

Baer, Wolf, and Risely (1968) included “generality of behavior change” as one of their 7 dimensions of applied behavior analysis.  Generalization of behavior change occurs when that behavior occurs outside of the learning environment.  Generalization can happen across 1) settings, 2) time  and 3) across people and exists when the behavior occurs in these various dimensions without relearning. Response Maintenance […]

Schedules of Reinforcement

Schedules of Reinforcement

A schedule of reinforcement is a rule that describes how often the occurrence a behavior will receive a reinforcement.  On the two ends of the spectrum of schedules of reinforcement there is continuous reinforcement (CRF) and extinction (EXT). Continuous reinforcement provides a reinforcement each and every time a behavior is emitted.  If every time you hear the doorbell ring and […]

Reinforcement 101

Reinforcement 101

The concept of reinforcement is one of the most important and utilized principles in applied behavior analysis.  The most basic definition of reinforcement is that a type of behavior (R) is followed by a reinforcement (S^R) there will be an increase in the future frequency of that behavior.  Reinforcement can be categorized as types or classes of reinforcement and they are […]