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Matching-to-Sample and Stimulus Equivalence

Matching-to-Sample and Stimulus Equivalence

Matching to Sample in ABA refers to a procedure where a stimulus is presented and taught to match a secondary stimulus (such as the word “car” and a picture of a car).  When the two stimulus are correctly matched, a reinforcer is given to increase future likelihood  of the stimulus matching to occur again. Reflexive is also called identity matching.  […]

Attitudes of Science

Attitudes of Science

ABA is a science of behavior and scientists have a set of “attitudes” that follow: Determinism Scientists presume that the world is a lawful place where events occur because of other events that present in the environment.  Things do not happen haphazardly in the universe.  Instead, things happen because of a consequence of other events happening.  There is a natural […]

Behavioral Contrast

Behavioral Contrast

Behavioral contrast occurs in a multiple schedule of reinforcement or punishment and describes what happens when a change in the schedule of one part of the reinforcement or punishment changes a behavior in an opposite direction in the other component of the schedule. An example from Applied Behavior Analysis given is that of a child who eats cookies at the […]

Echoics, Mands, Tacts

Echoics, Mands, Tacts

The Echoic is a verbal operant that is present when a person verbally repeats what another person says.  Echoic is a point-to-point correspondence meaning that the verbal stimulus and response products match in entirety. Motor imitation is related to echoics and can be a stepping stone to learning echoic behavior.  Echoics are a precursor to other verbal operants, such as […]

7 Dimensions of ABA

7 Dimensions of ABA

G-E-T A C-A-B Generality is that the behavior carries over into other contexts other than just the training environment. Behavior change proves durable over time, appears in a wide variety of environments, or spreads to a wide variety of related behaviors.  Focuses on lasting effects over time.  Has the intervention been tested over time? Effective is clinically significant effects make […]

Motivating Operations

Motivating Operations

An establishing operation (EO) is a motivating operation that increases the value of a reinforcer and increase the frequency in behavior that provides access to the reinforcer (Cooper, Heron & Heward, 207, p. 695).  An example of  an EO is skipping lunch and having an empty stomach. By being hungry it increases the value of food and increases the behaviors […]

Group Contingency

Group Contingency

A group contingency is a behavior management protocol where a single consequence (it can be a reward or aversive) is given based on either the behavior of an individual in a group, the behavior of a particular set of people within the group or the group as a whole.  The entire group receives the consequence.  This type of behavior management […]

Don Baer

Don Baer

Don Baer is one of the “fathers of generalization.”  In 1999, he wrote: “Learning one aspect of anything never means that you know the rest of it.  Doing something skillfully now never means that you will always do it well.  Resisting one temptation consistently never means that you now have character, strength, and discipline.  Thus, it is not the learner […]

Instructional Design that Promotes Generalization

Instructional Design that Promotes Generalization

Multiple exemplar training: A teaching style, for the benefit of generalization, uses a variety of stimulus and response outcomes.  For example, teaching a child to say, “hello” and / or wave to the stimulus of both to someone waving hello and saying, “howdy.” General Case Analysis: Is a systematic way of teaching examples that represent a full range of both […]

Contingencies

Contingencies

A contingency can be either a reinforcement or punishment that occurs after a behavior has been expressed by an individual or group.  A naturally existing contingency, in layman’s terms, “natural consequence” happens without the manipulation of the behavioral analysts.  Such an example would be, hitting the snooze button makes you late for work which causes you to leave your house […]