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Motivating Operations

Motivating Operations

An establishing operation (EO) is a motivating operation that increases the value of a reinforcer and increase the frequency in behavior that provides access to the reinforcer (Cooper, Heron & Heward, 207, p. 695).  An example of  an EO is skipping lunch and having an empty stomach. By being hungry it increases the value of food and increases the behaviors […]

Group Contingency

Group Contingency

A group contingency is a behavior management protocol where a single consequence (it can be a reward or adversive) is given based on either the behavior of an individual in a group, the behavior of a particular set of people within the group or the group as a whole.  The entire group receives the consequence.  This type of behavior management […]

Don Baer

Don Baer

Don Baer is one of the “fathers of generalization.”  In 1999, he wrote: “Learning one aspect of anything never means that you know the rest of it.  Doing something skillfully now never means that you will always do it well.  Resisting one temptation consistently never means that you now have character, strength, and discipline.  Thus, it is not the learner […]

Instructional Design that Promotes Generalization

Instructional Design that Promotes Generalization

Multiple exemplar training: A teaching style, for the benefit of generalization, uses a variety of stimulus and response outcomes.  For example, teaching a child to say, “hello” and / or wave to the stimulus of both to someone waving hello and saying, “howdy.” General Case Analysis: Is a systematic way of teaching examples that represent a full range of both […]

Contingencies

Contingencies

A contingency can be either a reinforcement or punishment that occurs after a behavior has been expressed by an individual or group.  A naturally existing contingency, in layman’s terms, “natural consequence” happens without the manipulation of the behavioral analysts.  Such an example would be, hitting the snooze button makes you late for work which causes you to leave your house […]

Generalization

Generalization

Baer, Wolf, and Risely (1968) included “generality of behavior change” as one of their 7 dimensions of applied behavior analysis.  Generalization of behavior change occurs when that behavior occurs outside of the learning environment.  Generalization can happen across 1) settings, 2) time  and 3) across people and exists when the behavior occurs in these various dimensions without relearning. Response Maintenance […]

Schedules of Reinforcement

Schedules of Reinforcement

A schedule of reinforcement is a rule that describes how often the occurrence a behavior will receive a reinforcement.  On the two ends of the spectrum of schedules of reinforcement there is continuous reinforcement (CRF) and extinction (EXT). Continuous reinforcement provides a reinforcement each and every time a behavior is emitted.  If every time you hear the doorbell ring and […]

Reinforcement 101

Reinforcement 101

The concept of reinforcement is one of the most important and utilized principles in applied behavior analysis.  The most basic definition of reinforcement is that a type of behavior (R) is followed by a reinforcement (S^R) there will be an increase in the future frequency of that behavior.  Reinforcement can be categorized as types or classes of reinforcement and they are […]

Preference Assessment

Preference Assessment

A preference assessment is conducted to identify potential reinforcers.  Note, we don’t know that these things are actually reinforcing until we see if applying the items increases a behavior.  To determine if a potential reinforcer is actually reinforcing, we can do a reinforcer assessment. Ways to identify potential reinforcers: Ask the person about their preferences.  This is an indirect method.  […]

Classifying Reinforcers

Classifying Reinforcers

Unconditioned Reinforcer is also called a primary reinforcer.  These are reinforcers that do not need to be learned, such as food, water, oxygen, warmth and sex.  These are all primary drives that we have for basic survival and if they are deprived in any way, gaining access to these reinforcers is very motivating. Conditioned Reinforcer is also called a secondary […]