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Matching Law

Matching Law

According to matching law, organisms distribute their behavior between two or more concurrent schedules of reinforcement.  That is, if a behavior is reinforced 60 percent of the time in one situation and 40 percent of the time in the other situation, the behavior will occur 60 percent of the time in the first situation and 40 percent of the time […]

Alternating Treatment Design

Alternating treatment design has the following advantages: Efficiently compares intervention effectiveness It does not require withdraw It can be used to assess generalization effects It does not include a return to baseline It often doesn’t include a baseline to begin with

Differential Reinforcement

Differential Reinforcement

Differential reinforcement in general is a scheduled procedure where the target behavior is being put on extinction by reinforcing something else than the original target behavior.  It is not a punishment of the target procedure but does act to reduce that target behavior.  The important thing is that the target behavior that is being reduced should not be reinforced during […]

Analysis of Data

Analysis of Data

Parametric analysis is used to evaluate a range of values for an intervention (independent variable). Visual analysis is used to look at graphed data. Component analysis attempts to determine which part of an independent variable is responsible for behavior change.  

3 Conditioned Motivating Operations – CMOs

3 Conditioned Motivating Operations – CMOs

What are conditioned motivating operations (CMOs)?  First we need to discuss motivating operations (MOs).  MOs  or sometimes called establishing operation (EOs) refers to a state that changes the value of consequences and elevates their status as reinforcers.  For example, not having eaten lunch in a while creates a state of hunger which is a motivating operation that elevates the value of […]

5 ABA Instructional / Educational Methodologies

5 ABA Instructional / Educational Methodologies

Discrete Trial (DT) Lovaas 1960 SD – Prompt Response – Sr+ Direct Instruction (DI) Siegfried Engelmann Choral Responses Fast Paced Highly reinforcing teaching technique Direct instruction is small group, face-to-face lessons.  It includes immediate error correction.  It is highly structured scripted lessons, fast paced and frequent assessments and regrouping based on those assessments. Precision Teaching (PT) Lindsley Fluency Celeration Charts […]

6 Attitudes of Science

6 Attitudes of Science

Determinism: Is based on cause and effect relations and lawfulness.  Everything can be determined. Empiricism: Is based on facts, observation, and experimentation.  An emperor obserserves from his throne. Experimentation: Manipulation of variables and taking measurements and collecting data yields answers.  When you are experimenting, you are conducting an experiment. Replication: Experiments can be repeated to check for errors and ensure that data […]

Schools of Behaviorism

Methodological Behaviorism S-O-R Stimulus organism variable response Occurs in response to stimuli in the physical environment as mediated through presumed internal processes according to an S-O-R model of psychology.  Methodological behaviorists believe that human behavior results from the action of presumed organic variables that determines how a person responds to external stimuli. According to Methodological Behaviorism, talking is an overt […]

3 Ways to Measure Time

Latency:  The time from the presentation of a stimulus to the start of the behavior Duration:  The time from the start of a behavior to the completion of the behavior. Also called temporal extent. Inter Response Time: Time from the end of a response to the beginning of the next response

Interval Recording

Interval Recording

Time Sampling: Refers to a variety of methods to record behavior at specific moments.  One divides the observation period into intervals and then record either the presence or absence of a behavior within or at the end of the interval. Partial Interval Recording: Record whether the behavior happened at any time during the interval.  Tends to underestimate high-frequency behavior and […]