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Differential Reinforcement

Differential Reinforcement

Differential reinforcement in general is a scheduled procedure where the target behavior is being put on extinction by reinforcing something else than the original target behavior.  It is not a punishment of the target procedure but does act to reduce that target behavior.  The important thing is that the target behavior that is being reduced should not be reinforced during […]

Analysis of Data

Analysis of Data

Parametric analysis is used to evaluate a range of values for an intervention (independent variable).  For example, if you were determining the range of values for “time out” that are most effective.  You would conduct a parametric analysis using 1 minute, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, and so on.  Parametric analysis can be thought of as the quest for “how much” […]

3 Conditioned Motivating Operations – CMOs

3 Conditioned Motivating Operations – CMOs

What are conditioned motivating operations (CMOs)?  First we need to discuss motivating operations (MOs).  MOs  or sometimes called establishing operation (EOs) refers to a state that changes the value of consequences and elevates their status as reinforcers.  For example, not having eaten lunch in a while creates a state of hunger which is a motivating operation that elevates the value of […]

5 ABA Instructional / Educational Methodologies

5 ABA Instructional / Educational Methodologies

Discrete Trial (DT) Lovaas 1960 SD – Prompt Response – Sr+ Direct Instruction (DI) Siegfried Engelmann Choral Responses Fast Paced Highly reinforcing teaching technique Small groups Direct instruction is small group, face-to-face lessons.  It includes immediate error correction.  It is highly structured scripted lessons, fast paced and frequent assessments and regrouping based on those assessments. Precision Teaching (PT) Lindsley Fluency […]

6 Attitudes of Science

6 Attitudes of Science

Determinism: Is based on cause and effect relations and lawfulness.  Everything can be determined. Empiricism: Is based on facts, observation, and experimentation.  An emperor obserserves from his throne. Experimentation: Manipulation of variables and taking measurements and collecting data yields answers.  When you are experimenting, you are conducting an experiment. Replication: Experiments can be repeated to check for errors and ensure that data […]

Schools of Behaviorism

Methodological Behaviorism S-O-R Stimulus organism variable response Occurs in response to stimuli in the physical environment as mediated through presumed internal processes according to an S-O-R model of psychology.  Methodological behaviorists believe that human behavior results from the action of presumed organic variables that determines how a person responds to external stimuli. According to Methodological Behaviorism, talking is an overt […]

3 Ways to Measure Time

Latency:  The time from the presentation of a stimulus to the start of the behavior Duration:  The time from the start of a behavior to the completion of the behavior. Also called temporal extent. Inter Response Time: Time from the end of a response to the beginning of the next response

Interval Recording

Interval Recording

Time Sampling: Refers to a variety of methods to record behavior at specific moments.  One divides the observation period into intervals and then record either the presence or absence of a behavior within or at the end of the interval. Partial Interval Recording: Record whether the behavior happened at any time during the interval.  Tends to underestimate high-frequency behavior and […]

Standard Celeration Charts

Standard Celeration Charts

The standard celeration chart is a method of charting and analyzing changes over time.  Ogden Lindsely invented this charting technique in the 1960s.  The are 4 different types of charts which scale across the horizontal axis.  There is the daily (140 calendar days), weekly, monthly and yearly charts.  The daily chart is the one that is most often used in […]

Response-Deprivation Hypothesis

Response-Deprivation Hypothesis

The term “response-deprivation hypothesis” refers to a model for predicting whether or not one behavior will function as a reinforcement for another behavior. Restricting access to the one behavior would create a state of deprivation for access to that behavior which creates a situation where access to the deprived behavior acts as a potential reinforcer if the baseline data indicates […]