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Errorless Learning

Errorless Learning

Errorless learning is based on the idea that if a student is successful and has more opportunities to be successful and receive reinforcement, they are more likely to exhibit correct behaviors in the future.  Skinner said “Errors are not necessary for learning to occur.”

Behavioral Cusp

Behavioral Cusp

Cusp behaviors are chosen as goals when possible.  They are behaviors that significantly expand a client’s repertoire to new settings, new contingencies and new stimulus controls.  Learning to read is a cusp behavior that gains access to a whole set of new learning opportunities, for example.  Also, a baby learning to crawl is a behavioral cusp.  This skill allows the […]

Self-management Programs

Self-management Programs

Effective self-management programs utilize the individuals ability to set criteria for reinforcement.  This is in Chapter 27 of Cooper.  Going public with one’s desire to change (to recruit support) and the ability to evaluate and redesign the original program if self-monitoring data indicates an adjustment is needed are important components to a successful program.  It is of note that punishment […]

6 Advantages to Graphic Displays of Data

6 Advantages to Graphic Displays of Data

Cooper, Heron and Heward (2007) outline 6 advantages to graphic displays of behavior data: Provide an immediate visual record of data allow the ability to explore behavioral variations of data in realtime serve as judgement aides that help interpret intervention results allow for visual analysis unbiased, independent judgement may be made from graphs serve as an effective tool for client […]

Punishment Procedures

Punishment Procedures

Punishment procedures, in applied behavior analysis (ABA), refers to a consequence that is applied to a behavior that has the effect of reducing the future occurrence of that behavior. Response cost: Is a punishment procedure where something such as tokens in a token system are removed as a negative punishment.  Response cost can be described as a fine for unwanted […]

Behavioral Definition

Behavioral Definition

3 characteristics of a good behavioral definition are: Objective – referring only to observable characteristics Clear – unambiguous Complete – setting boundaries, what is to be included and what is to be excluded

3 Dimensions of a Single-case Study Design

Prediction, verification and replication. Prediction involves anticipating what you think will happen in the future.  Verification is showing that dependent variables (DVs) would not change without intervention (independent variables: IVs).  Replication involves taking away the intervention, reintroducing it, and obtaining similar outcomes. Level, trend and variability have to do with the visual analysis of graphed data. Studies across participants, settings […]

Task Analysis

Task Analysis

A task analysis is an intervention which links a series of behaviors to create a more complex behavior chain.  Constructing the intervention chain must be done BEFORE the intervention begins.  One should also use the client’s repertoire for selecting appropriate interventions.  An evaluation of the client’s verbal repertoire and pre-attending skills are done before the intervention. 3 ways of validating […]

Interobserver Agreement (IOA)

Interobserver Agreement (IOA)

Interobserver Agreement (IOA) refers to the degree to which two or more independent observers report the same observed values after measuring the same events. 4 Benefits of IOA Determine the competence of new observers (when IOA is low) Detect observer drift over the course of a study (when IOA is low) Increases confidence that the target behavior was clearly defined […]

Prompting

Prompting

A stimulus prompt is a cue that makes the Sd for the target behavior more prominent.  For example, in order to encourage someone to push a button, you could make it big and a bright color.  Stimulus shaping is a changing of the physical dimensions of the stimulus over time.  For example, making the button to push smaller and more […]