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Reinforcer Assessment

Reinforcer Assessment

The quality / power of reinforcement can be determined with a reinforcer assessment.  A variety of direct, data-based methods are used to present one or more stimuli contingent on a target response and then measuring the future effects on the rate of responding. Concurrent schedule of reinforcer assessment: pits two stimuli against each other to see which will produce the […]

Behavior

Behavior

Behavior is movement of an organism through space and time.  It must past the “dead man’s test” which is to say, “if a dead man can do it, it isn’t behavior.”  Behavior can only be done by a living organism and does not include movements due to physical pressures exerted upon that organism.  For example, someone getting blown over by […]

Token Economy

Token Economy

Response Cost: Is a negative punishment that involves taking back tokens that have been earned.  It can be thought of as a fine for unwanted behavior which, hopefully, creates a decrease in the future possibility of this behavior occurring. A token can serve as a Generalized Conditioned Reinforcer (GCR).  That is, it has been paired with many conditioned and unconditioned […]

Baseline Logic

Baseline Logic

Baseline logic looks at 3 dimensions of single-case design.  These are : prediction, verification and replication. Prediction: What do you think will happen in the future Verification: Showing that the dependent variables (DVs) would not change without intervention (independent variables: IVs). Replication: Taking away the intervention, reintroducing it, and obtaining similar outcomes

Types of ABA Study Designs

Multiple baseline across participants is done by having multiple participants in the study and staggering when the intervention is applied.  At first baseline data is taken on all participants, and then participants are given treatment over time. Alternating treatments design switches treatments back and forth, one at a time.  The treatments are “turned on / off” and compared on a […]

Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)

Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)

Selecting interventions is based on: what a behavioral assessment deems to be the problem behavior and its function as determined by data analysis what the client needs in terms of a replacement behavior the social significance of the change evaluating the environment to see if it will produce reinforcement for the client after the intervention has been discontinued keeping client’s […]

Errorless Learning

Errorless Learning

Errorless learning is based on the idea that if a student is successful and has more opportunities to be successful and receive reinforcement, they are more likely to exhibit correct behaviors in the future.  Skinner said “Errors are not necessary for learning to occur.”

Behavioral Cusp

Behavioral Cusp

Cusp behaviors are chosen as goals when possible.  They are behaviors that significantly expand a client’s repertoire to new settings, new contingencies and new stimulus controls.  Learning to read is a cusp behavior that gains access to a whole set of new learning opportunities, for example.  Also, a baby learning to crawl is a behavioral cusp.  This skill allows the […]

Self-management Programs

Self-management Programs

Effective self-management programs utilize the individuals ability to set criteria for reinforcement.  This is in Chapter 27 of Cooper.  Going public with one’s desire to change (to recruit support) and the ability to evaluate and redesign the original program if self-monitoring data indicates an adjustment is needed are important components to a successful program.  It is of note that punishment […]

6 Advantages to Graphic Displays of Data

6 Advantages to Graphic Displays of Data

Cooper, Heron and Heward (2007) outline 6 advantages to graphic displays of behavior data: Provide an immediate visual record of data allow the ability to explore behavioral variations of data in realtime serve as judgement aides that help interpret intervention results allow for visual analysis unbiased, independent judgement may be made from graphs serve as an effective tool for client […]