web analytics
People in ABA

People in ABA

Robert Koegel and Laura Schreibman developed PRT (Pivotal Response Training).  It targets self-initiation of the subject’s preferred activities in a natural setting.. Fred S. Keller developed PSI (Personalized System of Instruction), a self-paced teaching method. Ogden Lindsley developed precision teaching which uses a semi-logarithmic chart also known as a Standard Celeration Chart.  The chart has a slope of 34 degrees.

Stimulus Control: Salience, Masking and Overshadowing

Stimulus Control: Salience, Masking and Overshadowing

Stimulus Salience refers to how obvious or prominent a stimulus is in a person’s environment.  If a person has visual deficits, then visual stimulus will not have as much salience as auditory stimulus, for example.  In order to notice stimulus, and for that stimulus to have salience, a learner must possess pre-attending skills necessary for the setting.  The pre-attending skills […]

Reinforcer Assessment

Reinforcer Assessment

The quality / power of reinforcement can be determined with a reinforcer assessment.  A variety of direct, data-based methods are used to present one or more stimuli contingent on a target response and then measuring the future effects on the rate of responding. Concurrent schedule of reinforcer assessment: pits two stimuli against each other to see which will produce the […]

Behavior

Behavior

Behavior is movement of an organism through space and time.  It must past the “dead man’s test” which is to say, “if a dead man can do it, it isn’t behavior.”  Behavior can only be done by a living organism and does not include movements due to physical pressures exerted upon that organism.  For example, someone getting blown over by […]

Token Economy

Token Economy

Response Cost: Is a negative punishment that involves taking back tokens that have been earned.  It can be thought of as a fine for unwanted behavior which, hopefully, creates a decrease in the future possibility of this behavior occurring. A token can serve as a Generalized Conditioned Reinforcer (GCR).  That is, it has been paired with many conditioned and unconditioned […]

Baseline Logic

Baseline Logic

Baseline logic looks at 3 dimensions of single-case design.  These are : prediction, verification and replication. Prediction: What do you think will happen in the future Verification: Showing that the dependent variables (DVs) would not change without intervention (independent variables: IVs). Replication: Taking away the intervention, reintroducing it, and obtaining similar outcomes

Types of ABA Study Designs

Types of ABA Study Designs

Multiple baseline across participants is done by having multiple participants in the study and staggering when the intervention is applied.  At first baseline data is taken on all participants, and then participants are given treatment over time. Alternating treatments design switches treatments back and forth, one at a time.  The treatments are “turned on / off” and compared on a […]

Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)

Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)

Selecting interventions is based on: what a behavioral assessment deems to be the problem behavior and its function as determined by data analysis what the client needs in terms of a replacement behavior the social significance of the change evaluating the environment to see if it will produce reinforcement for the client after the intervention has been discontinued keeping client’s […]

Errorless Learning

Errorless Learning

Errorless learning is based on the idea that if a student is successful and has more opportunities to be successful and receive reinforcement, they are more likely to exhibit correct behaviors in the future.  Skinner said “Errors are not necessary for learning to occur.”

Behavioral Cusp

Behavioral Cusp

Cusp behaviors are chosen as goals when possible.  They are behaviors that significantly expand a client’s repertoire to new settings, new contingencies and new stimulus controls.  Learning to read is a cusp behavior that gains access to a whole set of new learning opportunities, for example.  Also, a baby learning to crawl is a behavioral cusp.  This skill allows the […]